Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates:

39 00 N, 35 00 E


total: 780,580 sq km 
land: 770,760 sq km 
water: 9,820 sq km


Land boundaries:

total: 2,648 km 
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km


7,200 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea 
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR


temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior


high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m 
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources:

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 29.81% 
permanent crops: 3.39% 
other: 66.8% (2005)

Irrigated land:

52,150 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Environment - current issues:

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands 
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note:

strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

Population: 70,413,958 (July 2006 est.)
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Turkey 
conventional short form: Turkey 
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti 
local short form: Turkiye
Government type: republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Ankara 
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E 
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Nationality: noun: Turk(s) 
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian 
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Europe part of Turkey


Economy of Turkey


Turkish lira (YTL)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Trade organisations

WTOOECDcustoms union with EU



$612.3 billion 

GDP growth

5.6% (2005 est.)

GDP per capita

$8,200 (2005 est.)

GDP by sector

agriculture: 11.7%, industry: 29.8%, services: 58.5% (2005 est.)

Inflation (CPI)

8.2% (2005 est.)

Pop below poverty line

20% (2002)

Labour force

24.7 million (2005)

Labour force by occupation

agriculture: 35.9%, industry: 22.8%, services: 41.2% (3rd qtr. 2004)


10.2% plus underemployment of 4% (2005 est.)

Main industries

textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Trading Partners


$72.49 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Export goods

apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment

Main partners

Germany 13%, UK 8.2%, Italy 7%, US 6.9%, France 5.1%, Spain 4.2% (2005)


$101.2 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports goods

machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment

Main Partners

Germany 13.9%, Russia 10.5%, Italy 7%, France 5.6%, China 4.4%, US 4.1% (2005)

Public finances

Public debt

68% of GDP (2005 est.)


$93.58 billion (2005)


$115.3 billion (2005)

Economic aid

recipient: $635.8 million (2002)

According to the provisional data, in September 2006; exports grew by 7,4% and reached to 7.316 Million Dollars, and imports grew by 12,2% and reached to 11.630 Million Dollars. At the same period, foreign trade deficit raised by 21,5%, reached from 3.552 Million Dollars to 4.314 Million Dollars.

In September 2006 exports coverage imports was 62,9% while it was 65,7% in 2005.

In January-September 2006, exports grew (13,4% in 2006 compared with 2005) to 60.697 Million Dollars; imports grew (17,8% in 2006 compared with 2005) to 100.540 Million Dollars. As compared with the same period of the previous year, the foreign trade deficit was up by 25,2% reached to 39.843 Million Dollars.

The weight of the EU in Exports has continued in January-September 2006 period. As compared with the same period of the previous year, exports to EU were 31.625 Million Dollars increased by 13,6%. The proportion of the EU countries was 52,1% while the proportion of Free Zones in Turkey was 3,5% and the others was %44,4.

In January-September 2006, the main partner for exports was Germany with 6.977 Million Dollars and increased by 0,8%. In September 2006, exports to Germany was 846 Million Dollars and decreased by 4,4% in comparison with the same period of the previous year. For exports, Germany was followed by the Italy (594 Million Dollars), the UK (591 Million Dollars), the USA (412 Million Dollars), and Spain (372 Million Dollars).

In January-September 2006, while the European Union Countries were the most intensive country group for imports (39.694 Million Dollars), followed by other European Countries (21.592 Million Dollars), Asian Countries (26.489 Million Dollars) and Free Zones in Turkey (654 Million Dollars).

For September 2006, the top country for Turkey’s imports was Russia (1.450 Million Dollars), records for imports range from Germany (1.127 Million Dollars), China (879 Million Dollars), Iran (598 Million Dollars) and Italy (594 Million Dollars).

For January-September 2006, road vehicles and their parts has by far the highest value exported at 8.519 Million Dollars and then, articles of apparel and clothing accessories 5.098 Million Dollars, machineries, mechanical appliances, boilers, equipments and parts 4.575 Million Dollars.

At the same period, the top categories for imports were mineral fuels and mineral oils (21.041 Million Dollars) and then machineries, mechanical appliances, boilers, equipments and parts (13.585 Million Dollars).